Painting Gallery 23
Alcatraz Island, San Francisco Bay
Radicals in their time, early Impressionists violated the rules of academic painting. They began by constructing their pictures from freely brushed colours that took precedence over lines and contours, following the example of painters such as Eug?ne Delacroix. They also painted realistic scenes of modern life, and often painted outdoors. Previously, still lifes and portraits as well as landscapes had usually been painted in the studio. The Impressionists found that they could capture the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting en plein air. They portrayed overall visual effects instead of details, and used short "broken" brush strokes of mixed and pure unmixed colour?not blended smoothly or shaded, as was customary?in order to achieve the effect of intense colour vibration.
Rockefeller Center Skating Rink
Post-Impressionism developed from Impressionism. From the 1880s several artists began to develop different precepts for the use of colour, pattern, form, and line, derived from the Impressionist example: Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, Georges Seurat, and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. These artists were slightly younger than the Impressionists, and their work is known as post-Impressionism. Some of the original Impressionist artists also ventured into this new territory; Camille Pissarro briefly painted in a pointillist manner, and even Monet abandoned strict plein air painting. Paul C?zanne, who participated in the first and third Impressionist exhibitions, developed a highly individual vision emphasising pictorial structure, and he is more often called a post-Impressionist. Although these cases illustrate the difficulty of assigning labels, the work of the original Impressionist painters may, by definition, be categorised as Impressionism.
Four Ducks in Delaware and Raritan Canal, New Jersey
Most of the D&R Canal system remains intact today and is a reminder of the days when the delivery of freight depended upon a team of mules or steam tugboats. Thirty-six miles of the main canal and 22 miles of the feeder canal still exist, with many historic structures along its entire length.
During the early nineteenth century, when the United States entered into the industrial revolution, canals were built as transportation routes to link resources, manufacturing centers and markets. The D&R Canal was built across central New Jersey to provide an efficient and safe route for transporting freight between Philadelphia and New York. Since boats could navigate the Delaware River to Bordentown and the Raritan River to New Brunswick, those two cities were selected as the canal's two terminuses. To supply water to the main canal at its highest elevation in Trenton, a feeder canal was dug from Bull's Island on the Delaware River south to Trenton. Construction of the D&R Canal began in 1830. Laborers - the majority of whom are believed to have been migratory Irish immigrants - were hired to dig, mostly by hand, the main canal and its feeder. The main canal was 44 miles long, 75 feet wide and 7 feet deep. The feeder was 22 miles long, 50 feet wide and 6 feet deep. The canal system was completed in 1834 at an estimated cost of $2,830,000. although the feeder canal originally was designed to supply water to the main canal, it was navigated by cargo vessels from the time of its completion. Changes to the feeder canal were made to allow vessels from Pennsylvania's Delaware Division Canal to lock into the feeder canal at Lambertville. Canal boats and barges were pulled by mule teams at first. Steam-powered ships were introduced on the canal around 1843. For nearly a century after it opened, the D&R Canal was one of America's busiest navigation canals. Its peak years were the 1860s and 1870s when Pennsylvania coal was transported through the D&R Canal to feed the city of New York's industrial boom. During this period, 80% of the total cargo carried on the canal was coal. At the same time that construction began on the canal, a railroad route through the central part of the state was also under construction. One year later, in 1831, the canal company and the railroad company merged forming "The Joint Companies." This merger provided protection against competition for both the canal and the railroad. In 1855, the Belvidere-Delaware Railroad completed the laying of track alongside the feeder canal. By the end of the 19th century, canal use was declining throughout the country. The speed and power of the railroad overtook the romance of the canal era. The D&R Canal's last year of operation at a profit was 1892, but is stayed open through the 1932 shipping season. After the canal closed, the State of New Jersey took it over and rehabilitated it to serve as a water supply system - a purpose it still serves today. In 1973, the canal and its remaining structures were entered on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1974, over 60 miles of the canal and a narrow strip of land on both banks were made a state park. A portion of the Belvidere-Delaware Railroad corridor from Bull's Island to Frenchtown was added to the park in the 1980s. The park's trail system was designated a National Recreation Trail in 1992. — Delaware & Raritan Canal State Park
Piscataway Tree Trunk
Although the emergence of Impressionism in France happened at a time when a number of other painters, including the Italian artists known as the Macchiaioli, and Winslow Homer in the United States, were also exploring plein-air painting, the Impressionists developed new techniques that were specific to the style. Encompassing what its adherents argued was a different way of seeing, it was an art of immediacy and movement, of candid poses and compositions, of the play of light expressed in a bright and varied use of colour.
Woods Park, Middletown, New Jersey
Enjoy a fabulous view of the Navesink River, and relax as you get away from it all on one of the trails. Park features: 258 acres of forest and meadows. Other attractions include seven miles of multi-use trails, and the Environmental Center with hands-on nature displays. A visit to Huber Woods Park is the perfect opportunity to appreciate facets of nature that are often taken for granted. While you're at Huber Woods, take time amid the scenic beauty and panoramic views to observe small things -- sounds, smells, light and shadow, subtle hints of seasonal changes. Relax in a meadow or take a walk along a wooded trail. Each experience will enhance your appreciation of the fascinating natural world around you. Walkers, and equestrians all have favorite trails at Huber Woods. Short or long loops, steep inclines, and gentle grades offer something for everyone. (6 miles of trails) — Monmouth County Parks
New Jersey Sunset 1
The development of Impressionism can be considered partly as a reaction by artists to the challenge presented by photography, which seemed to devalue the artist's skill in reproducing reality. Both portrait and landscape paintings were deemed somewhat deficient and lacking in truth as photography "produced lifelike images much more efficiently and reliably".
New Jersey Sunset 2
The public, at first hostile, gradually came to believe that the Impressionists had captured a fresh and original vision, even if the new style did not receive the approval of the art critics and establishment. By recreating the sensation in the eye that views the subject, rather than delineating the details of the subject, and by creating a welter of techniques and forms, Impressionism became a precursor of various styles of painting, including Neo-Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, and Cubism.
New Jersey Sunset 3
By the early 1880s, Impressionist methods were affecting, at least superficially, the art of the Salon. Fashionable painters such as Jean Beraud and Henri Gervex found critical and financial success by brightening their palettes while retaining the smooth finish expected of Salon art. Works by these artists are sometimes casually referred to as Impressionism, despite their remoteness from Impressionist practice.
Painting Gallery 23